Frailty correlates with morbidity and is superior to chronological age in predicting mortality. Frailty of older migrants has important implications for the demands placed on healthcare systems. Examining 95,635 Europeans in the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe, we investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between migration and frailty at ages >50 years. We examined whether associations differed by countries' level of healthcare coverage and access for migrants and tested mediation by home-ownership and citizenship. Cross-sectionally, first-generation migrants >50 years old were, on average, 16.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.6, 18.2%) frailer than non-migrants after confounder-adjustment. This decreased to 12.1% (95% CI: 10.1, 14.1%) after adjustment for citizenship.